The context surrounding the study of the impact of testosterone on elite athletes is essential in understanding its underlying hypothesis – that “excess” endogenous testosterone confers a competitive advantage. This is a direct outgrowth of the Dutee Chand’s suspension that was overturned because while “possessing high levels of testosterone and thereby increasing lean body mass creates a competitive advantage,” there was no evidence of endogenous testosterone’s impact. It also explains the apparent conflict of interest of the authors; one the head of the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) [1] Health and Science Department, the other a consultant and member of the workgroup on hyperandrogenic females and transgender issues and was a witness in the Chand case. ...

In scientific publishing, authorship is the currency through which scientists are judged. Authorship is one of the most (if not the most) important factors in grant approvals, tenure decisions, and status in the field. 

It is, first and foremost, important to be an author on a paper. However, not all placements are the same. So, of equal importance is where in the list of authors your name appears. 

The two most important placements are the first author and the last author. Everyone in the middle of those two play a supporting role.

The last author is the head of the lab - the person who holds the grant and, therefore, funded the work. The first author did the most work on the paper - most likely the graduate student or post doc who thought of the project, designed...

At some point during our upbringing, the stereotype that men are more intelligent than women is likely to set in.

Even though I do not believe it, I do not accept it and I certainly do not condone it, I can see that this stereotype exists. 

Like most stereotypes, it is extremely powerful despite being false. One of the many negative outcomes of this stereotype is that it guides girls' choices and behaviors, resulting in, for one, the lack of women in fields where being perceived as brilliant is more important than other traits like hard work. 

At what age does this stereotype take hold?

New research published in Science shows that children as young as 6 are already knee deep in sexism. Bian et al. asked 5, 6 and 7 year old boys and...

Depression has often been associated with symptoms such as sadness, apathy and anxiety. But researchers are coming to understand that depression can manifest itself differently in men than it does in women - and as a result, men s depression has been under diagnosed.

Researchers looking to understand the disparities in depression rates between men and women found that when symptoms such as anger, aggression and drug abuse were accounted for, those disparities disappeared.

The study, published online in JAMA psychiatry, used data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), including 3,310 women and 2,382 men. Researchers developed two scales. The Male...