HIV

Deadly viruses that cause infections like West Nile, Zika and Dengue are passed from mosquitos to humans by bites. But what about HIV? Why isn't it also spread this way? Turns out it's a combination of virology and luck.
In the years since AIDS became known to Americans in 1982, it's gone from a certain death sentence to a very manageable disease. And even as good as anti-HIV drugs are today, after nearly four decades of research HIV infection remains incurable. But thanks to two drugs and a bunch of rhesus monkeys, that may soon change. 
With gonorrhea rates climbing in the USA and other countries, an Australian research team set out to determine whether an 1879 claim that Listerine mouthwash could cure it was fact or fiction.
The innovations of Dr. Henry Heimlich extended well beyond his famed anti-choking maneuver. The Heimlich Chest Drain Valve gets blood and air out of the chest cavity of soldiers shot there. He also developed the Heimlich MicroTrach, a tiny tube providing certain advantages to delivering oxygen into the trachea, and effectively the lungs.   
Dr. Wafaa El-Sadr gives us a new way to think about stopping the HIV epidemic: "treatment as prevention." If implemented across the globe, it may be the key in stopping new cases of HIV -- and stopping the epidemic once and for all. 
African women have one of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Although some means of prevention exist, compliance has not been great. However, two large, random controlled trials of vaginal rings containing a viral inhibitor, and requiring changing only once every four weeks, suggest that there may be help on the horizon.
With 140 million citizens in Russia, there's an estimated 1.5 million who have been diagnosed with HIV or AIDS. And the rate of HIV infection is rising 10 to 15 percent each year. To demonstrate just how backward Russia's public health policy is, take a look at its HIV statistics as compared to those of the United States.
The benefits of circumcision
As with most politicized topics, science gets quickly drowned out by activists' hyperbole and exaggeration. The American Academy of Pediatrics says that the benefits of circumcision outweigh the risks, though it falls short of giving the procedure a blanket endorsement.
A recent study, published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, revealed that although expensive, the UNAIDS "90-90-90" program is well worth the price. The program's overall goal is to be able to achieve a 73 percent reduction in the viral load to undetectable levels worldwide by 2020.
Truvada has repeatedly been shown to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. Yet women require more of the drug than men for protection from infection, according to a new study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
In the course of a few hours, Charlie Sheen's disclosure of his HIV status did for HIV awareness what no public health measure would ever have accomplished. This is now known as the so-called "Charlie Sheen effect," and despite his publicly wacky way of disclosing his illness, we welcome it.
Until recently, it looked like the African AIDS epidemic might finally be controlled, with the widespread use of anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs. But poor compliance has caused HIV to mutate in a way such that tenofovir, one of the most important ARV drugs, often no longer works, threatening not only Africa, but world as well.