A Lancet article by Carol E. Gartner et al published online on May 10, 2007 cited the ACSH study "Tobacco Harm Reduction," which in turn appeared in Harm Reduction Journal (2006;3:37) and was the basis of ACSH's booklet on smokeless tobacco as harm reduction. The Lancet article concludes:
Current smokers who switch to using snus rather than continuing to smoke can realize substantial health gains. Snus could produce a net benefit to health at the population level if it is adopted in sufficient numbers by inveterate smokers. Relaxing current restrictions on the sale of snus is more likely to produce a net benefit than harm, with the size of the benefit dependent on how many inveterate smokers switch to snus.