constrained energy expenditure

The flight of birds involves both the flapping of wings and soaring on currents of air. But the act of moving their wings is equivalent -- energetically speaking -- to humans sprinting. So what’s a bird, especially a large bird, like the condor, supposed to do?
The new year brings a succession of ads prompting us to make healthy promises, to eat less and exercise more. The basis for the “science” behind those calls to healthful resolutions is called the Additive Energy Expenditure Model. But don’t be afraid; that merely means exercising more burns calories that you can use to eat something special.